Semantics - is the study of meaning in language

Semantics - is the study of meaning in language.

Literal meaning- it comes with its own set of facts, we can understand it without the context.It is determinable outside context;• it comes with its own set of facts. -> decontextualizedImplicational meaning- needs a context, the hearer must calculate everything. Not so decidable, everything must be calculated by a hearer, working from the expression in relation to perceived intentions and circumstances. ->contextualized

Semantic likeness: (synonyms, paraphrasing, tautology (instead of repeating: Bill's brother is a sibling)Difference of meaning: (antonyms, anomaly (unable to exist together) , contradiction (bills brother is his sister (exclude each other))Inclusion of meaning: hyponymy (set members of words: couch- furniture), entailment (something involved as a necessary part of something)

Ungradable antonyms (dead- not alive, not alive- dead) sometimes called complementaries.Gradable antonyms (contraries): the truth of one requires the falsity of another: hot and cold, smth not hot can be warm, not necessarily cold.

CONTENT WORDS- (noun, verb, adjective) it is what in our mind we recognize as certain kind of entity, SENTENCE- concept that provides a certain situation.

Descriptive meaning of a sentence- concept of a certain kind of situation. If the sentence is true it can be considered as a referent of a sentence.

DENOTATION- is the category, or set, of all its potential referents. It includes false and real referents. Semiotic triangle: the relationship between the word, its meaning and its denotation.

Declarative sentences- the finite verb is usually after the subject, in the second position of the sentence. (the dog has ruined my skirt) This type is used for making assertions, giving information. Interrogative sentences- the finite verb is in the initial (front) position, and has to be an auxiliary verb. (has the dog ruined the skirt?) leaves open whether or not the situation pertains (belongs properly).

Imperative sentences- finite verb inn the first position, normally there's no explicit subject. (don't ruin my skirt!) Used for commands, advices,

• In different CoUs, sentences, and parts of them, are interpreted as referring to different objects, facts, etc. Thus, in context they are taken as conveying different information, since the information is related to different things in the world. – For example, the sentence I’m tired. is taken to convey information about Tom if Tom says it, and about Judy if she does.

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  • English
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Semantics - is the study of meaning in language. (November 13, 2016). Reviewed on 18:14, March 1 2021