Causes of salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia: Dehydratation (impaired water intake, loss of water through the skin, blood loss, emesis, diarrhea, renal water loss). Protein caloric undernutrition. Damage to the salivary glands (irradiation, autoimmune diseases (Sjogrens syndrome), HIV, aging). Interference with neural transmission (medications (at least 250 potentially xerostomic medications), autonomic dysfunction, conditions affecting CNS (Alzheimer’s disease), psychogenic disorders (depression, anxiety), trauma, decreased masticatory function).

Clinical symptoms: Restricted movement of the mandible. Deviation of the mandible on opening (≥2mm). Pain on palpation of the masticatory muscles. Pain on palpation of the TMJ. Pain on movement of the mandible. Anamnestic symptoms: Sounds in the TMJ. Reported pain in the muscles or TMJ. Reported difficulties in opening the mouth. Pain when chewing and swallowing. Locking of the TMJ. Luxation of the TMJ.

Possible etiologic factors of residual ridge resorption I. Local: Loss of periodontal membrane. Surgical exposure of bone. Length of period of edentulousness. Overloded compression of the residual ridge: Small gonial angle and elevated occlusal force. Bruxism. Unstable occlusal conditions. Anterior hyperfunction syndrome. Day-and-night denture wearing. II. General: Gender-associated osteoporosis. Age-associated osteoporosis. Malnutrition-associated osteoporosis: Calcium deficiency; Vitamin D deficiency.

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  • Gerodontology
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Gerodontology. (December 8, 2017). Reviewed on 19:22, April 11 2021